The Effects of Seated Position on Occupant Kinematics in Low-speed Rear-end Impacts 2005-01-1204
Seventeen rear-end impacts with a nominal 8 km/hr change in velocity to five human subjects in four positions were conducted. The four seated positions consisted of the Normal position, with the torso against the seat back, looking straight ahead, hands on the steering wheel, and feet on the floor; the Torso Lean position, with the torso leaned forward approximately 10 degrees away from the seat back; the Head Flex position, with the head flexed forward approximately 20 degrees from normal; and the Head Flex / Torso Lean position, with the head flexed forward approximately 20 degrees from normal and the torso leaned forward approximately 10 degrees from normal position. Relative to the Normal position, it was found that in both positions involving the torso lean, the peak head acceleration for the subject's head was reduced during the head-restraint impact. Further, the inertial acceleration of the head due to the forces on the neck, prior to the head rest impact, was somewhat higher for the two positions involving torso lean. Minor, transient, whiplash associated disorder (WAD) symptoms were noted. The nominal change in velocity used in this study appears to be of a reasonable magnitude to continue human subject out of position (OOP) testing.