Evaluation of Smoke Toxicity of Automotive Materials According to Standard Small-Scale Test Procedures 2005-01-1558
This paper examines the role of inhalation toxicity of the products of combustion that are generated in post-collision motor vehicle fires by automotive materials used under the hood. Small-scale toxic gas measurements were performed at Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®) on eighteen components of two of the vehicles that were tested previously at the Factory Mutual Test Center (FMTC). The small-scale toxic gas measurements were obtained under dynamic flow-through conditions in the Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E 1354) and under static conditions in two smoke chamber methods (ASTM E 662 and ASTM E 1995); all methods were supplemented with FTIR gas analysis.
Average yields of toxic gases measured in the Cone Calorimeter are comparable to but consistently lower than values reported in the literature for the Fire Propagation Apparatus (ASTM E 2058). Toxic gas yields are higher in the smoke chamber methods than in the Cone Calorimeter, but the ranking order of materials based on the concentrations of CO and other toxic gases is different between the dynamic and static methods. Materials were tested individually, and the results do not account for the interaction between multiple components installed in a vehicle.