Muscle Forces and Fatigue in a Digital Human Environment 2005-01-2712
Since muscles act to translate an electrical impulse from the central nervous system into motion, it is essential to have a suitable mathematical model for muscles and groups of muscles for a virtual soldier environment. This paper presents a methodology in which the muscle contraction is broken down into three distinct physiological processes: calcium release and re-absorption by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the rate at which calcium binds and unbinds to troponin, and the generation of force due to cross-bridge cycling and the elasticity of the muscle fibers. These processes have been successfully modeled by Ding and Wexler as a system of coupled differential and algebraic equations. These equations give the calcium-time history and the force time history of the muscle. By varying the electrical stimulation rates, the muscles can produce forces of varying magnitude and duration over which the force can be maintained.