Developing Diesel Engines to Meet Ultra-low Emission Standards 2005-01-3628
The modern diesel engine is used around the world to power applications as diverse as passenger cars, heavy-duty trucks, electrical power generators, ships, locomotives, agricultural and industrial equipment. The success of the diesel engine results from its unique combination of fuel economy, durability, reliability and affordability - which drive the lowest total cost of ownership.
The diesel engine has been developed to meet the most demanding on-highway emission standards, through the introduction of advanced technologies such as: electronic controls, high pressure fuel injection, and cooled exhaust gas recirculation. The standards to be introduced in the U.S. in 2007 will see the introduction of the Clean Diesel which will achieve near-zero NOx and particulate emissions, while retaining the customer values outlined above. The progress toward near-zero emissions has involved the development of:
Advanced engines using new technologies
Advanced aftertreatment systems
Availability of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels
This paper describes the technology, tools and processes used to develop ultra-low emission diesel engines for on-highway heavy-duty applications. While meeting emissions is an important goal, it is vital to develop engines that retain traditional customer values. The primary purpose of this paper is to provide a set of ideas and practical tools that allow engine design and development to focus on the end-user, while satisfying regulatory requirements. The on-highway heavy-duty (HD) diesel engine is used to illustrate the processes; however the general principles may be applied to other diesel engine applications, such as off-highway, marine or power generation.
The paper underlines the importance of selecting the right technology and system architecture for the application, executing the design of hardware and controls software, and optimizing the performance, fuel economy and emissions through controls calibration using the best available tools. Understanding customer requirements is the fundamental foundation for effective engine design, as is the integration of the engine system with the machine it will drive - be it a truck, a ship or a power generating set.
The paper will describe the modern HD diesel engine, as used in on-highway applications in the US, and will discuss the technologies that make these engines possible. The evolution of emissions requirements in the U.S. and worldwide will be discussed. The important processes of system integration and product definition will be discussed briefly and put in context with the demands of developing new engine systems to meet proposed ultra-low emissions standards. The paper will close with a look forward to advanced technologies that will be candidates for meeting future stringent emission standards.