Characterizing Occipital Condyle Loads Under High-Speed Head Rotation 2005-22-0002
Because of the need to evaluate anthropomorphic test device (ATD) biofidelity under high-head angular accelerations, the purpose of the present investigation was to develop appropriate instrumentation for intact post mortem human subject (PMHS) testing, validate the instrumentation, and obtain information to characterize the response of the head-neck complex under this loading scenario. A series of rigid-arm pendulum, inertially loaded ATD tests was conducted. Head and neck ATD hydraulic piston chin pull tests were conducted. Subsequently, a series of PMHS tests was conducted to derive the response of the human head-neck under high-rate chin loading. Finally, Hybrid III and THOR-NT ATD head-neck systems were evaluated under the same scenario as the PMHS. A parametric analysis for center of gravity (CG) location and accelerometer orientation determined that even small errors (± 3 mm or 2 degrees), produced errors in the force and moment calculations by as much as 17%. If the moment of inertia (MOI) term was varied by 5%, resulting moment calculations were affected by as much as 8%. If the 5% error in MOI was used to compute occipital condyle moments, and results compared to upper load cell derived moments, peaks differed by as much as 24%. The head CG and mass MOI should be directly measured for each preparation to obtain accurate results. The injury run on each specimen resulted in predominantly C1-C2 separations or partial separations. The 50th percentile probability of AIS=2+ neck injury using tensile force was about 2400 N; for AIS=3+ neck injury the 50th percentile risk was about 3180 N. When inserting extension moment as the criteria, the 50th percentile probability of an AIS=2+ injury was 51 Nm. The AIS=3+ extension moment at the 50th percentile probability was 75 Nm. The new THOR-NT ATD head-neck produced more biofidelic responses with an alternate head-neck junction design compared to the Hybrid III ATD.