An Analytic Foundation for the Toyota Prius THS-II Powertrain with a Comparison to a Strong Parallel Hybrid-Electric Powertrain 2006-01-0666
Hybrid-electric powertrains for passenger vehicles and light trucks are generally being designed with two different configurations described as follows: The Toyota Hybrid System, THS-II, implemented in the 2004 Prius, the Lexus 400-H, and the Ford Hybrid Escape, is a power-split approach involving two electric machines and an internal combustion engine (ICE) mechanically coupled by a three-shaft planetary gear train. The second leading approach is a parallel hybrid-electric powertrain that generally includes a single electric machine and an ICE with a mating multi-ratio transmission. These parallel configurations are further divided as weak parallel and strong parallel. Honda uses a weak parallel powertrain in their Insight and Hybrid Civic. At Georgia Tech a strong (full), split-parallel hybrid powertrain has been implemented in a Ford Explorer. The vehicle is referred to as the Model GT. After presenting an analytic description of the THS-II operation, this paper then compares and contrasts the THS-II and Model GT powertrains outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each design.