Review of Thermodynamic Diesel Engine Simulations under Transient Operating Conditions 2006-01-0884
Study and modeling of transient operation is an important scientific objective. This is due to the fact that the majority of daily vehicle driving conditions involve transient operation, with non-linear situations experienced during engine transients. Thus, proper interconnection is needed between engine, governor, fuel pump, turbocharger and load. This paper surveys the publications available in the open literature concerning diesel engine simulations under transient operating conditions. Only those models that include both full engine thermodynamic calculations and dynamic powertrain modeling are taken into account, excluding those that focus on control design and optimization. Most of the attention is concentrated to the simulations that follow the filling and emptying modeling approach. A historical overview is given covering, in more detail, research groups with continuous and consistent study of transient operation. One of the main purposes of this paper is to summarize basic equations and modeling aspects concerning in-cylinder calculations, friction, turbocharger, engine dynamics, governor, fuel pump operation, and exhaust emissions during transients. The various limitations of the models are discussed together with the main aspects of transient operation (e.g. turbocharger lag, combustion and friction deterioration), which diversify it from the steady-state. Some of the most important findings in the field during the last 30 years are presented and discussed. The survey extends to special cases of transient diesel engine simulation, such as second-law analysis, response when the turbocharger compressor experiences surge, and whole vehicle performance. Several methods of improving transient response are also mentioned, based on the various simulations. An easy-to-read tabulation of all research groups dealing with the subject, that includes details about each model developed and engines/parameters studied, is also provided at the end of the paper.