Exploring Pediatric Lower Extremity Injuries in Lateral Collisions with EDSMAC4 and GATB in HVE 2006-01-1400
This paper describes the application of the EDSMAC4 and GATB simulation modules of the Human Vehicle and Environment (HVE) software to analyze pediatric case occupants with fractures to the proximal part of the lower extremity due to lateral collisions. EDSMAC4 and GATB simulation results were compared with in-depth crash investigations for crash dynamics, injury mechanisms and occupant kinematics. These crash investigations were conducted as part of the Partners for Child Passenger Safety (PCPS) project at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP).
In-depth investigations of near side impact crashes involving children (8-15 years old) with proximal lower extremity fractures were conducted. EDSMAC4 module was used to simulate vehicle dynamics and damage. The vehicle acceleration pulse generated from EDSMAC4 was used in the GATB module to predict the child occupant kinematics in these crashes. The EDSMAC4 results were consistent with the vehicle dynamics and damage pattern as measured in the crash investigation. The GATB analysis of occupant kinematics suggests that the initial orientation and subsequent motion of the pelvis and the direction of force influence the likelihood of injury. Different boundary conditions were adopted in the respective cases to understand the initial orientation and subsequent motion of the occupant pelvis. The scenarios of two side impact cases with no-, mid-, and maximum-intrusion along with different vehicle seat contours were also simulated. The results from the study sample show that the seat contour, intrusion and point of impact on the vehicle influenced the severity of injury to the proximal lower extremity in side impacts. The study also illustrates the utility of EDSMAC4 and GATB simulation models in HVE for better understanding of occupant kinematics in real world crashes.
Although this approach offers certain distinct advantages in studying the injury causing factors, further assessment of this approach and capabilities of the simulation modules in HVE is required.