High-Speed Seatbelt Pretensioner Loading of the Abdomen 2006-22-0002
This study characterizes the response of the human cadaver abdomen to high-speed seatbelt loading using pyrotechnic pretensioners. A test apparatus was developed to deliver symmetric loading to the abdomen using a seatbelt equipped with two low-mass load cells. Eight subjects were tested under worst-case scenario, out-of-position (OOP) conditions. A seatbelt was placed at the level of mid-umbilicus and drawn back along the sides of the specimens, which were seated upright using a fixed-back configuration. Penetration was measured by a laser, which tracked the anterior aspect of the abdomen, and by high-speed video. Additionally, aortic pressure was monitored. Three different pretensioner designs were used, referred to as system A, system B and system C. The B and C systems employed single pretensioners. The A system consisted of two B system pretensioners. The vascular systems of the subjects were perfused. Peak anterior abdominal loads due to the seatbelt ranged from 2.8 kN to 10.1 kN. Peak abdominal penetration ranged from 49 mm to 138 mm. Peak penetration speed ranged from 4.0 m/s to 13.3 m/s. Three cadavers sustained liver injury: one AIS 2, and two AIS 3. Cadaver abdominal response corridors for the A and B system pretensioners are proposed. The results are compared to the data reported by Hardy et al. (2001) and Trosseille et al. (2002).