Analysis of Neck Tension Force in IIHS Rear Impact Test 2007-01-0368
This paper examines the neck tension force (Fz) of the BioRid II dummy in the IIHS (Insurance Institute of Highway Safety) rear impact mode. The kinematics of the event is carefully reviewed, followed by a detailed theoretical analysis, paying particular attention to the upper neck tension force. The study reveals that the neck tension should be approximately 450N due to the head inertia force alone. However, some of the tests conducted by IIHS had neck tension forces as high as 1400N. The theory of head hooking and torso downward pulling is postulated in the paper, and various publicly available IIHS rear impact tests are examined against the theory. It is found in the analysis that in many of those tests with high neck tension forces, the locus of the head restraint reaction force travels on the dummy's skull cap, and eventually moves down underneath the skull cap, which causes “hooking” of the head on the stacked-up head restraint foam. This “hooking” phenomenon, in combination with a simultaneous torso downward pulling motion due to pelvis rebounding, results in a high neck tension. Several scenarios of neck tension in relation to dummy kinematics are hypothesized, and each hypothesis is tested using IIHS test data.