Browse Publications Technical Papers 2007-01-1411
2007-04-16

A High Speed Flow Visualization Study of Fuel Spray Pattern Effect on Mixture Formation in a Low Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline Engine 2007-01-1411

In developing a direct injection gasoline engine, the in-cylinder fuel air mixing is key to good performance and emissions. High speed visualization in an optically accessible single cylinder engine for direct injection gasoline engine applications is an effective tool to reveal the fuel spray pattern effect on mixture formation The fuel injectors in this study employ the unique multi-hole turbulence nozzles in a PFI-like (Port Fuel Injection) fuel system architecture specifically developed as a Low Pressure Direct Injection (LPDI) fuel injection system. In this study, three injector sprays with a narrow 40° spray angle, a 60°spray angle with 5°offset angle, and a wide 80° spray angle with 10° offset angle were evaluated. Image processing algorithms were developed to analyze the nature of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing and the extent of fuel spray impingement on the cylinder wall. Test data reveal that for a given cylinder head, piston configuration and intake air port flow characteristics, injector spray pattern plays a dominating role in how the fuel-air mixture is formed. If an appropriate injector spray pattern is chosen, the in-cylinder fuel mixing can be enhanced by minimizing fuel impingement on cylinder wall, piston top, and intake valves, thus producing a more homogeneous fuel-air mixture prior to the ignition. Engine designers can select a specific spray pattern to improve the fuel-air mixture optimized for specific parameters such as engine head, piston, valve configuration, intake air flow characteristics, fuel injection strategy, injector mounting and operating conditions.

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