Browse Publications Technical Papers 2007-01-1965
2007-07-23

Correlations among Ash-Related Oil Species in the Power Cylinder, Crankcase and the Exhaust Stream of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine 2007-01-1965

In this study, changes in the composition of lubricant additives in the power cylinder oil are examined. Samples are extracted from a single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine in two locations during engine operation; the crankcase and the top ring groove of the piston. Emissions of lubricant-derived ash-forming elements are lower than would be expected based on oil consumption and crankcase oil composition. This occurs partly because the inorganic additive compounds are less volatile than light-end hydrocarbons in the base oil. The tribology of the piston ring pack also affects the composition of the oil consumed in the power cylinder system. The elemental composition of oil extracted from the top ring groove is significantly different than the crankcase oil. Additive metals are concentrated in the top ring groove of the power cylinder. Detergent compounds (i.e. Ca and Mg) concentrate due to the volatility of the base oil. The metals associated with ZDDP (i.e. Zn and P) are concentrated to a lesser degree. The concentrations of these metals/elements are reduced because of the higher volatility of ZDDP thermal degradation products, deposition and anti-wear film formation.

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