A Musculoskeletal Model of the Upper Limb for Real Time Interaction 2007-01-2488
With the ever-increasing power of real time graphics and computational ability of desktop computers, the desire for a real-time simulation of the musculoskeletal system has become more pronounced. It is important that this simulation is realistic, interactive, runs in real time, and looks realistic, especially in our climate of Hollywood special-effects and stunning video games. An effective simulation of the musculoskeletal system hinges on three key features: accurate modeling of kinematic movement, realistic modeling of the muscle attachment points, and determining the direction of the forces applied at the points. By taking known information about the musculoskeletal system and applying it in a real time environment, we have created such a model of the human arm. This model includes realistic constraints on the joints and real-time wrapping algorithms for muscle action lines. Preliminary evaluation shows that the moment arms calculated by our model are similar to those shown in the literature. Furthermore, by coupling our model with known optimization algorithms, muscle activation levels for prescribed joint torques can be calculated in real time.