Future Functions of Internal Combustion Engines in the Context of Hybrids, Fuel Cells and Regenerative Fuels 2007-24-0077
The inherent drastic reduction of CO2, additionally to the limitation of pollutant emission, but at high level of propulsion power and torque as conditions of customer acceptance, imposes the introduction of new concepts of propulsion generation and management. A drastic reduction of CO2 - as cumulated quantity in the atmosphere - is possible by both reduction of specific energy consumption well-to-wheel for propulsion as well as by the utilization of regenerative fuels, ensuring a significant recycling of CO2 emissions from propulsion systems by photosynthesis.
Alternative scenarios to the classical automobile propulsion by piston engine show remarkable potentials in terms of power characteristic, energy consumption or pollutant emissions. On the other hand, the development of internal combustion engines is moving from sophisticated mechanics to modular and adaptable process management. On the down sizing platform, as a measure to avoid a large range of part load, modular functions such as super- or turbocharging, variable valve actuation, direct injection or heat transfer regulation allow efficient combinations for different load/speed or transient conditions. The generation of current on board by a fuel cell, powered with the same fuel like the propulsion engine, offers the possibility to control the modular functions of the engine - from supercharging to heat transfer - independently on the engine speed, in electric circuits, with adaptable parameters in respect to load, speed or transient conditions. This strategy let expect a remarkable improvement of efficiency; thus the competition between ICE and fuel cell becomes a benefic concurrence.
Furthermore, new designed fuels such a synfuel or sunfuel let expect a promising development of future automobile propulsion systems.