Towards CO and HC Aftertreatment Devices for the Next Generation of Diesel Engines 2008-01-1543
The reduction of NOx emissions required by the future Euro 6 standards leads engine manufacturers to develop Diesel Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion processes. Because this concept allows reducing both NOx and particulates simultaneously, it appears as a promising way to meet the next environmental challenges.
Unfortunately, HCCI combustion often increases CO and HC emissions. Conventional oxidation catalyst technologies, currently used for Euro 4 vehicles, may not be able to convert these emissions because of the saturation of active catalytic sites. As a result, such increased CO and HC emissions have to be reduced under standard levels using innovative catalysts or emergent technologies.
The work reported in this paper has been conducted within the framework of the PAGODE project (PSA, IFP, Chalmers University, APTL, CRF, Johnson Matthey and Supelec) and financed by the European Commission. The objectives are to develop advanced new catalyst formulation for efficient CO/HC conversion at low temperature, possibly coupled with new emerging technologies based on non-thermal plasma concept and adapted to the specific HCCI exhaust emissions.
This paper presents one of the first steps of the study: the definition of the oxidation catalyst boundary conditions under HCCI combustion. For this, we perform a detailed characterisation of the CO and HC emissions on a NADI™ dual mode engine (HCCI at low load and switch to conventional combustion at high load), based on a 2.2-liter, 4-cylinder for passenger car.
The regulated pollutant emissions (CO, THC) have been measured with standard gas analyzer devices. Moreover, hydrocarbon speciation has been done with a C1-C9 gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a FID system. In addition, aldehydes and ketones emissions have been analyzed by means of a High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC).
The results show that HCCI combustion tends to form higher methane emissions than conventional combustion. Moreover, high EGR rates lead to higher oxygenated emissions, in particular formaldehyde. If aldehydes are easily converted when the catalyst is warm, methane is not oxidized at these temperatures.
The next steps of the program will be the definition, the fabrication and the tests of an HCCI-dedicated efficient oxidation catalyst to comply with CO and HC emissions standards. Non-thermal plasma reactor will be also mounted in the exhaust line to help the oxidation reaction.