PEM Fuel Cell Stack Characterization and its Integration in Simulating a Fuel Cell Powertrain 2008-01-1796
Fuel cell based powertrains are considered as potential candidates for future vehicles. Modeling of vehicle powertrains, using a combination of components and energy storage media, are widely used to predict vehicle performances under different duty cycles.
This paper deals with performance analysis of a light-duty vehicle comprised of a PEM fuel cell stack, in combination with different energy storage systems using Powertrain Simulation Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The performance of the stack was characterized by experimental data on a smaller PEM stack and was used in the simulation. The stack data was collected at controlled loading and thermal parameters. Three energy storage systems are considered in the analysis: nickel metal hydride battery storage, lithium-ion battery storage and ultra capacitor energy storage.
The simulation results were analyzed for comparative evaluations and to optimize the performance of the fuel cell powertrain configurations. The study shows that a combined energy storage system, involving batteries and ultra-capacitors, provide vehicle performance equivalent to the combustion engine powered vehicle. The size of the fuel cell size also impacts predicted fuel economy and vehicle acceleration time. The impact of various energy storage system technologies on simulated vehicle performance is discussed in the paper.