Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water Returned from ISS Expeditions 14 and 15 2008-01-2197
The Johnson Space Center Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) performed detailed ground-based analyses of archival water samples for verification of the chemical quality of the International Space Station (ISS) potable water supplies for Expeditions 14 and 15. During the 12-month duration of both expeditions, the Space Shuttle docked with the ISS on four occasions to continue construction and deliver additional crew and supplies; however, no Shuttle potable water was transferred to the station during Expedition 14. Russian ground-supplied potable water and potable water from regeneration of humidity condensate were both available onboard the ISS for consumption by the Expeditions 14 and 15 crews. A total of 16 chemical archival water samples were collected with U.S. hardware during Expeditions 14 and 15 and returned on Shuttle flights STS-116 (12A.1), STS-117 (13A), STS-118 (13A.1), and STS-120 (10A) in December 2006, and June, August, and November of 2007, respectively. The average return sample volume of 0.73 liters was sufficient to allow full chemical characterization to be performed. This paper reports the analytical results for the condensate-regenerated and ground-supplied/stored potable water archival samples that were returned from Expeditions 14 and 15, and compares these results to ISS water quality standards. Potable water samples collected in-flight with Russian hardware and pre-flight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to the Station on the Russian Progress vehicle during Expeditions 14 and 15 were also received from the Russian side and analyzed by the WAFAL. Analytical results for these additional ISS potable water samples are also reported and discussed in this paper.