Early Direct-Injection, Low-Temperature Combustion of Diesel Fuel in an Optical Engine Utilizing a 15-Hole, Dual-Row, Narrow-Included-Angle Nozzle 2008-01-2400
Low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel was studied in a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, optical engine employing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle (10 holes × 70° and 5 holes × 35°) with 103-μm-diameter orifices. This nozzle configuration provided the spray targeting necessary to contain the direct-injected diesel fuel within the piston bowl for injection timings as early as 70° before top dead center. Spray-visualization movies, acquired using a high-speed camera, show that impingement of liquid fuel on the piston surface can result when the in-cylinder temperature and density at the time of injection are sufficiently low.
Seven single- and two-parameter sweeps around a 4.82-bar gross indicated mean effective pressure load point were performed to map the sensitivity of the combustion and emissions to variations in injection timing, injection pressure, equivalence ratio, simulated exhaust-gas recirculation, intake temperature, intake boost pressure, and load. High-speed movies of natural luminosity were acquired by viewing through a window in the cylinder wall and through a window in the piston to provide quasi-3D information about the combustion process. These movies revealed that advanced combustion phasing resulted in intense pool fires within the piston bowl, after the end of significant heat release. These pool fires are a result of fuel-films created when the injected fuel impinged on the piston surface. The emissions results showed a strong correlation with pool-fire activity. Smoke and NOx emissions rose steadily as pool-fire intensity increased, whereas HC and CO showed a dramatic increase with near-zero pool-fire activity.
Citation: Martin, G., Mueller, C., Milam, D., Radovanovic, M. et al., "Early Direct-Injection, Low-Temperature Combustion of Diesel Fuel in an Optical Engine Utilizing a 15-Hole, Dual-Row, Narrow-Included-Angle Nozzle," SAE Int. J. Engines 1(1):1057-1082, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-2400. Download Citation
Glen C. Martin, Charles J. Mueller, David M. Milam, Michael S. Radovanovic, Christopher R. Gehrke
Sandia National Laboratories, Caterpillar Inc.
Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Meeting
SAE International Journal of Engines-V117-3EJ, SAE International Journal of Engines-V117-3