Browse Publications Technical Papers 2008-21-0017
2008-10-20

Efficient Batteries for Transportation Applications 2008-21-0017

This paper reviews and analyzes the current and future battery technologies suitable for transportation applications. The success of battery-enabled hybridization of gasoline and diesel power-trains in the past decade has clearly established it as the most credible alternative to the conventional propulsion systems. The current enthusiasm for electric vehicles further accentuates this success.
In this paper, we compare the performance of a number of established and emerging battery technologies against the now well-established performance targets for electric-drive vehicles. Lithium-ion cells' superior performance and life are described, as are requirements for supplantation of NiMH cells in vehicles. Trends are discussed in technology development, which has largely been achieved through insertion of Li technologies in consumer electronics.
Recent developments have given rise to several variants of the Li ion chemistry. We compare these technologies from performance, life, abuse-tolerance and cost perspectives to facilitate selection of appropriate battery technologies for a particular application. Key mechanisms controlling performance degradation as well as life are also discussed. Issues related to high volume manufacturing of large-size batteries are very important and are discussed in the context of likely global demand, and scalabiity of various processes. Finally, resultant cost and calendar-life are discussed, along with cycle-life analysis, recyclability, and business models for efficient, and green reclamation and reuse of materials.

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