The Lean Burn Direct-Injection Jet-Ignition Flexi Gas Fuel LPG/CNG Engine 2009-01-2790
This paper explores through engine simulations the use of LPG and CNG gas fuels in a 1.5 liter Spark Ignition (SI) four cylinder gasoline engine with double over head camshafts, four valves per cylinder equipped with a novel mixture preparation and ignition system comprising centrally located Direct Injection (DI) injector and Jet Ignition (JI) nozzles. With DI technology, the fuel may be introduced within the cylinder after completion of the valve events. DI of fuel reduces the embedded air displacement effects of gaseous fuels and lowers the charge temperature. DI also allows lean stratified bulk combustion with enhanced rate of combustion and reduced heat transfer to the cylinder walls creating a bulk lean stratified mixture. Bulk combustion is started by a Jet Ignition (JI) system introducing in the main chamber multiple jets of reacting gases for enhanced rate of combustion, initiating main chamber burning in multiple regions with reduced sensitivity to mixture state and composition. Coupling of JI and DI allows the development of a lean burn engine making possible operation up to main chamber overall fuel-to-air equivalence ratios reducing almost to zero and throttle-less load control by quantity of fuel injected as in the diesel engine. Results are presented in terms of maps of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and efficiency and maximum power densities. Load variations are obtained by varying the air to fuel equivalence ratio from λ=1 up to λ=6.6. Maximum power densities running λ=1 are 80 hp/liter (60 kW/liter) with CNG and almost 90 hp/liter (67 kW/liter) with LPG. BSFCs are as low as 200 and 190 g/kWh and brake efficiencies are up to 39 and 37% respectively with LPG and CNG running lean λ=1.65. Low BSFCs and high brake efficiencies are possible from 25 to 100% of engine load.