Hydraulic Fluid Efficiency Studies in Low-Speed High-Torque Motors 2009-01-2848
This paper presents an investigation of the fluid viscosity properties that affect the Low-Speed High-Torque (LSHT) efficiency of hydraulic motors. Low speed torque efficiency is important because it often determines the minimum displacement (size) and operating pressure of mobile hydraulic equipment. The viscosity, viscosity index, high-shear viscosity, piezoviscosity and shear stability of prototype fluids have been characterized. These hydraulic fluids have been evaluated in a full-scale hydraulic motor dynamometer. Geroler, axial piston and radial piston motors have been evaluated. Low-speed (1 RPM) testing has been performed under constant pressure conditions in accordance with the ISO 4392-1 standard test method. Startability testing has been performed under constant load conditions in accordance with ISO 4392-2. In startability and 1 RPM testing, the axial piston motor exhibited a 6 percent efficiency gain with a high viscosity index hydraulic fluid. The radial piston and geroler motors showed less of an improvement. The results of this investigation reveal that high VI fluids increase the torque output of axial piston motors under startup and LSHT conditions.