The Effect of Angle on the Chest Injury Outcome in Side Loading 2009-22-0014
Thoracic injury criteria and injury risk curves in side impact
are based on impactor or sled tests, with rigid or padded surfaces
while airbags are very common on current cars. Besides, the loading
is generally pure lateral while real crashes or regulations can
generate oblique loadings. Oblique tests were found in the
literature, but no conclusion was drawn with regard to the effect
of the direction on the injury outcome.
In order to address these two limitations, a series of 17 side
airbag tests were performed on Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) at
different severities and angles. The subjects were instrumented
with accelerometers on the spine and strain gauges on the ribs.
They were loaded by an unfolded airbag at different distances in
pure lateral or 30 degrees forward. The airbag forces ranged from
1680 N to 6300 N, the injuries being up to 9 separated fractured
This paper provides the test results in terms of physical
parameters and injury outcome of the 17 subjects. Geometrical and
physical characteristics of the subjects are described as well as
the distribution of injuries as a function of test conditions. Then
a statistical analysis is presented which gives the effect of the
loading angle on the injury outcome. The results of this study
provide useful data for the validation of finite element models in
terms of injury prediction, as well as for the development of
injury risk curves for side impact dummies.