On-board Particulate Matter (PM) mass calibration (OB-PMMC) is an approach to calibrate a real-time PM sensor with the gravimetric PM mass being collected on a conventional filter. The real-time PM sensor is integrated in a PM sample system and takes sample upstream of the sample filter. The PM mass collected on the filter is determined either by weighing the filter or by using analytical approaches. A unique calibration coefficient for each sample filter is generated for converting the PM real-time signal to the real-time PM mass emission. This calibration approach can be used to modify Constant Volume Samplers (CVS) and laboratory Partial Flow Sample Systems (PFSS), etc., into real-time PM mass measurement instruments for engine or vehicle exhaust PM measurement. The same technique may also be used to measure real-time PM concentration in the atmosphere under some circumstance.