Browse Publications Technical Papers 2010-01-1287
2010-04-12

Experimental Assessment of Turbocharged Diesel Engine Transient Emissions during Acceleration, Load Change and Starting 2010-01-1287

The control of transient emissions from turbocharged diesel engines remains an important objective to manufacturers, since newly produced engines must meet the stringent criteria concerning exhaust emissions levels as dictated by the legislated Transient Cycles. In the present work, experimental tests are conducted on a medium-duty, turbocharged and after-cooled diesel engine in order to investigate the behavior and formation mechanism of nitric oxide (NO), smoke and combustion noise emissions under various transient operating schedules including acceleration, load change and starting. To this aim, a fully instrumented test bed was set up in order to record and research key engine and turbocharger variables during the transient events. The main parameters measured were nitric oxide concentration and smoke opacity (both using ultra-fast response analyzers) as well as combustion noise. Various other variables were monitored, such as in-cylinder pressure, engine speed, fuel pump rack position, boost pressure and turbocharger speed. The main focus of the experimental investigation was devoted to engine acceleration tests representative of automotive and truck applications, commencing from various engine speeds and loads. The experimental test pattern also included load increases and (cold and hot) starts. Analytical diagrams are provided to explain the behavior of exhaust emissions development in conjunction with turbocharger and governor/fuel pump response. Turbocharger lag was found to be the main cause for the emissions peak values observed during all transient events. During starting, the lack of air and its mismatch with fueling caused excessive black smoke, identified by the extremely high values of exhaust gas opacity.

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