The tests related to the exhaust emissions from non-road vehicles are currently performed on a chassis dynamometer under the name of NRSC (ISO 8178) and NRTC. In light of the growing requirements related to the environment protection in transport the authors recommend determining the exhaust emissions through real vehicle operating conditions. The tests carried out under real operating conditions could be used for the process of optimization of future power trains of regular road vehicles and non-road vehicles. What is more, these tests should be taken into account in the works on the changes of the legislation related to the emission limits from combustion engines. The paper presents the results of the tests on the exhaust emissions from an agricultural harvester engine and a tractor engine in real operating conditions. The harvester operation during the test consisted in crops collection from the field and the tractor operation during the test consisted in plowing. The authors used SEMTECH DS, a portable exhaust emissions analyzer by SENSORS. Based on the obtained results an analysis of the exhaust emissions was performed in the aspect of selected engine operating parameters. The paper also presents an analysis determining the most frequently used range of engine loads and engine speeds. The obtained time density characteristics (distribution of engine speeds and loads in time) of the engines were juxtaposed to the engine measuring points of the exhaust emissions homologation test. The final part of the paper discusses the prospects and trends in further works on the exhaust emissions measurement under real operating conditions from vehicle and machinery used in agriculture as well as other vehicles of non-road application.