Permeability Measurements of Sintered and Paper Based Friction Materials for Wet Clutches and Brakes 2010-01-2229
Wet clutches are important components used in the transmission and drive trains of many modern vehicles. The clutches transfer torque via the friction between a number of friction discs and the friction characteristics is therefore of great importance for the overall behavior of the vehicles. The friction characteristics is governed by a number of parameters such as lubricant base oil and additives, type and permeability of the friction material and temperature and surface roughness of the interacting surfaces. The permeability is considered to influence time of engagement and supply the sliding interface with lubricant and additives during engagement. In this work, a permeability measurement method suitable for wet clutch friction materials is thus used to measure the permeability of friction materials of different types; sintered bronze and paper based materials. The investigated friction materials come from different vehicle applications such as Limited Slip Differentials and Automatic Transmissions. The investigation also includes measurements made with different types of lubricants such as mineral based lubricants, mineral based VHVI lubricants and ester based lubricants. As comparison similar permeability measurements are made with water since the permeability, according to Darcy's law, should not be influenced by the percolating fluid.
It is found that even though permeability is considered to be a material parameter the measured permeability for a certain material will vary depending on which fluid that is used in the measurements. Therefore, if a detailed absolute value of the permeability is of interest, i.e. for use in simulations models, the permeability should be measured with the fluid that is going to be used in the clutch or brake application in order to obtain a detailed result. However the results show that if the permeability only is compared between different materials the test fluid is of less importance as long as the same fluid is used in all investigations.