Brake Thermal Efficiency Improvements of a Commercially Based Diesel Engine Modified for Operation on JP 8 Fuel 2011-01-0120
The majority of commercial diesel engines rely on EGR to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards, creating a potential issue for military applications that use JP-8 as a fuel. EGR components would be susceptible to corrosion from sulfur in JP-8, which can reach levels of 3000 ppm. Starting with a Cummins 2007 ISL 8.9L production engine, modifications to remove EGR and operate on JP-8 fuel are investigated with a key goal of demonstrating 48% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at an emissions level consistent with 1998 EPA standards. The effects of injector cup flow, improved turbo match, increased compression ratio with revised piston bowl geometry, increased cylinder pressure, and revised intake manifold for improved breathing, are all investigated. Testing focused on a single operating point, full load at 1600 RPM. This engine uses a variable geometry turbo and high pressure common rail fuel system, allowing control over air fuel ratio, rail pressure, and start of injection. These parameters were optimized for several component combinations to determine the best engine efficiency that could be achieved for various levels of engine modification. While the program goal is to have emissions consistent with 1998 EPA standards, testing was also conducted at higher NOx levels to determine the additional gain in BTE that could be possible if emissions were not a constraint.