An AUTOSAR-Compliant Automotive Platform for Meeting Reliability and Timing Constraints 2011-01-0448
High demands on advanced safety and driving functions, such as active safety and lane departure warnings, increase a vehicle's dependency on automotive electrical/electronic architectures. Hard real-time requirements and high reliability constraints must be satisfied for the correct functioning of these safety-critical features, which can be achieved by using the AUTOSAR (Automotive Open System Architecture) standard. The AUTOSAR standard was introduced to simplify automotive system design while offering inter-operability, scalability, extensibility, and flexibility. The current version of AUTOSAR does not assist in the replication of tasks for recovering from task failures. Instead, the standard assumes that architecture designers will introduce custom extensions to meet such reliability needs. The introduction of affordable techniques with predictable properties for meeting reliability requirements will prove to be very valuable in future versions of AUTOSAR.
In this paper, we propose a new Software-Component (SW-C) allocation algorithm called R-FLOW (Reliable application-FLOW-aware SW-C partitioning algorithm) for fail-stop processors to support fault-tolerance with bounded recovery times, and we integrate the R-FLOW algorithm into AUTOSAR. R-FLOW leverages different types of replication schemes to satisfy reliability and timing constraints, while offering a high degree of resource utilization and flexibility. Specifically, R-FLOW classifies real-time periodic tasks into Hard Recovery tasks, Soft Recovery tasks, and Best-Effort Recovery tasks. Hot Standbys are used for recovering from failures of hard recovery tasks, whereas Cold Standbys are utilized for recovering from failures of soft recovery and best-effort recovery tasks. With this goal in mind, we design and implement our proposed architecture within the guidelines of the current AUTOSAR framework. We have built an at-scale prototyping platform, comprising of Freescale HCS12X processing boards, a dual-channel FlexRay bus, and a CAN network. Our proposed architecture is evaluated on this platform using reliability and timeliness metrics in the context of different fault scenarios.