Browse Publications Technical Papers 2011-01-0900
2011-04-12

Engine Efficiency Improvements Enabled by Ethanol Fuel Blends in a GDi VVA Flex Fuel Engine 2011-01-0900

Advances in engine technology including Gasoline Direct injection (GDi), Dual Independent Cam Phasing (DICP), advanced valvetrain and boosting have allowed the simultaneous reductions of fuel consumption and emissions with increased engine power density. The utilization of fuels containing ethanol provides additional improvements in power density and potential for lower emissions due to the high octane rating and evaporative cooling of ethanol in the fuel. In this paper results are presented from a flexible fuel engine capable of operating with blends from E0-E85. The increased geometric compression ratio, (from 9.2 to 11.85) can be reduced to a lower effective compression ratio using advanced valvetrain operating on an Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) or Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) strategy. DICP with a high authority intake phaser is used to enable compression ratio management. The advanced valvetrain also provides significantly reduced throttling losses by efficient control of intake air and residuals. Increased ethanol blends provide improvements in power density due to knock resistance. Knock resistance also provides a significant potential for reduced NOx since higher dilution without knock is enabled at moderate loads typical of normal driving. E85 also shows significant advantages for particulate emissions that enable broader authority in selection of optimal injection timings for improving efficiency. An increase in the ethanol content improves low end torque providing an addition opportunity for improved fuel economy by using down-speeding for more efficient vehicle operation

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