A technique is presented for measuring the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and residual gas fraction (RGF) using a fast UEGO-based O₂ measurement of the manifold or in-cylinder gases, and of the exhaust gases. The technique has some advantages over the more common CO₂-based method. In the case of an RGF measurement, fuel interference must be eliminated and special fuelling arrangements are required. It is shown how a UEGO-based measurement, though sensitive to reactive species in the exhaust (such as H₂), as a system reports EGR/RGF rates faithfully. Preliminary tests showed that EGR and RGF measurements using the O₂ approach agreed well with CO₂-based measurements.