Browse Publications Technical Papers 2011-01-1351
2011-04-12

Experimental Study of Fuel Composition Impact on PCCI Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine 2011-01-1351

Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) is a combustion concept that holds the promise of combining emission levels of a spark-ignition engine with the efficiency of a compression-ignition engine. In a short term scenario, PCCI would be used in the lower load operating range only, combined with conventional diesel combustion at higher loads. This scenario relies on using near standard components and conventional fuels; therefore a set of fuels is selected that only reflects short term changes in diesel fuel composition.
Experiments have been conducted in one dedicated test cylinder of a modified 6-cylinder 12.6 liter heavy duty DAF engine. This test cylinder is equipped with a stand-alone fuel injection system, EGR circuit and air compressor. For the low load operating range the compression ratio has been lowered to 12:1 by means of a thicker head gasket. It is shown that emission levels and performance strongly correlate with the combustion delay (CD=CA50-SOI), independent of how this combustion delay is achieved.
In a longer term scenario, both engine hardware and fuels can be adapted to overcome intrinsic PCCI challenges. At higher loads and at 15:1 compression ratio, necessary for good full load efficiency, a less reactive fuel is required to delay auto-ignition and phase combustion correctly. A number of low reactivity fuel blends have been used to investigate the desired Cetane Number for PCCI operation at different loads. For these blends too, all emission levels as well as the efficiency are shown to greatly correlate with the combustion delay. With an improved efficiency because of the higher compression ratio, the blend with an estimated CN of 25 was found to be the most flexible in being able to choose the optimum CD for the conditions and load used.

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