Due to the recent drive to reduce CO₂ emissions, the turbocharged direct injection spark ignition (turbo DISI) gasoline engine has become increasingly popular. In addition, future turbo DISI engines could incorporate a form of charge dilution (e.g., lean operation or external EGR) to further increase fuel efficiency. Thus, the conditions experienced by the fuel before and during combustion are and will continue to be different from those experienced in naturally aspirated SI engines. This work investigates the effects of fuel properties on a modern and prototype turbo DISI engine, with particular focus on the octane appetite: How relevant are RON and MON in predicting a fuel's anti-knock performance in these modern/future engines? It is found that fuels with high RON and low MON values perform the best, suggesting the current MON requirements in fuel specifications could actually be detrimental. However, when producing a fuel of high RON and low MON, care must be taken to avoid a formulation that is prone to pre-ignition.