Crankcase Sampling of PM from a Fired and Motored Compression Ignition Engine 2011-24-0209
Crankcase emissions are a complex mixture of combustion products and aerosol generated from lubrication oil. The crankcase emissions contribute substantially to the total particulate matter (PM) emitted from an engine. Environment legislation demands that either the combustion and crankcase emissions are combined to give a total measurement, or the crankcase gases are re-circulated back into the engine. There is a lack of understanding regarding the physical processes that generate crankcase aerosols, with a paucity of information on the size/mass concentrations of particles present in the crankcase. In this study the particulate matter crankcase emissions were measured from a fired and motored 4-cylinder compression ignition engine at a range of speeds and crankcase locations. A sequence of sampling equipment was used to characterize the emissions in the size range 5 nm - 19 μm; Cambustion DMS500 fast particulate spectrometer, TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), TSITM Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and, TSITM Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The combination of the two test engines and range of sampling equipment provided new information on the generation and behavior of aerodynamic particulate matter within an engine crankcase. Data is presented for the effect of controlled parameter changes on number distributions over the measured particle size range. A complex lognormal bimodal size distribution of sub micron accumulation mode particles was present in the crankcase of both engines at a low idle speed of 900 rpm. At 1400 rpm this complex distribution was not present. Increasing the engine load, on the fired engine, initially reduced the particle number concentration with a final significant increase in particle number concentration at 75% load. At 900 rpm 50% load there was a single strong peak at 32 nm in the rocker cover however sampling from the push rod gallery and sump showed a strongly bimodal distribution with peaks at 32 nm and 133 nm. All other sampling data, from the fired engine, was consistent at each sampling location. The SMPS results, 15-665 nm, on the motored engine showed location dependency, with the highest number concentration of particles present in the push rod gallery.