Browse Publications Technical Papers 2011-32-0554
2011-11-08

Characterization of Nano Particle Emissions and it's Metrices for 2-wheeler Motorcycles Evaluation of Vehicle Models and Model Years at Different Fuel Levels 2011-32-0554

In the recent studies, the health implications of ultra fine particle emissions from vehicles have been investigated in a number of international studies. The adverse health effects are not only dependent on total particulate mass but also on other attributes including size, number and surface area of the particles and also their constituents like SOF, IOF, PAH, benzene, 1-3 butadiene, etc., which are mainly responsible for higher mortality rate due to their carcinogenicity and mutagenecity. These ultra fine particles cause more adverse effects than larger particles. With this need UNECE GRPE had launched a particulate measurement program (PMP) to formulate the regulation to control both particulate mass and number of ultra fine particles. These new regulations are applicable to the diesel and gasoline direct injection passenger cars and heavy-duty engines of Euro-V/VI technology. However, at present the other vehicle categories like 2, 3 wheelers and alternate fuels are not being covered. Limited experiments have been carried out on the various categories of 2-wheeler gasoline vehicles for PM₂.₅, particle number and its other metrices including their chemical speciation. This paper presents the work carried out on the nano particle measurement with the test setup complying with GRPE-PMP requirements. This paper focuses specifically on in-use 2-wheeler motorcycle category. The test matrix formulated include 10 motorcycles of 3 different levels of model years tested on 4 different levels of gasoline fuels viz. BS-III, Euro-II,III & IV. This paper discusses the findings of analysis of Particulate matter PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ measured on the Indian driving cycle for motorcycles, and particle number measured by using Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and Volatile Particle Remover (VPR). The other metrices of nano particles measured by Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) are size, surface and volume. Further chemical analysis of PM₂.₅ is carried out to measure various non-regulatory pollutants like soluble organic fraction (SOF), Inorganic fraction (IOF), Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), Aldehydes & Ketones, 1-3 butadiene and benzene. Experimental data analyzed by using statistical techniques like ANOVA, box plot and regression analysis reveal that PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ are highly correlated with 99% coefficient of determination. In 2-wheeler motorcycle sector PM₂.₅ is significant over models and model years.

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