Efficacy and Usage Patterns for Three Types of Rearview Camera Displays During Backing Up 2012-01-0287
The usage of rearview camera displays and their effectiveness on drivers' capability to avoid unexpected obstacles during four common backing tasks (i.e., parallel parking, backing between two vehicles, backing down a driveway, backing out of a garage) was evaluated on a closed-course with stationary confederate vehicles, signage, and lane markings. The obstacle consisted of either a stationary or a moving target that appeared to the rear of the test vehicle. Eye movements and vehicle dynamics measurements (i.e., longitudinal acceleration, brake displacement) were recorded, in addition to obstacle hit/avoidance rates. Performance was assessed for four rearview camera (RVC) conditions: small center-stack display (SD), large center-stack display (i.e., navigation screen) (LD), in-mirror display (IMD), and no display (ND). Test participants comprised drivers of both sexes between the ages of 18 and 68 who reported having no experience with rearview camera displays in their current or previously owned vehicles. The results showed that having an RVC display dramatically improved obstacle avoidance rates under the conditions tested. Higher avoidance rates were documented when the IMD or SD was available compared to the LD. Not all drivers relied upon RVC displays, however, even when these were available to them. Usage rates were lowest for the large center-stack display and highest for the IMD. Eye movement data indicate that drivers spent a higher proportion of time during backing tasks looking at the IMD compared to the other two displays without severe decreases in the duration of time spent looking at the rearview and side mirrors. Thus, under certain backing conditions, RVC displays, and the IMD in particular, have the potential to aid drivers in detecting and avoiding collisions while being used in conjunction with other sources of visual information (e.g., rearview and side mirrors).