Neck Loads in Playground Activities in a Pediatric Population 2012-01-0560
Neck injury assessment reference values (IARVs) and tolerance values for children have been specified using animal data compared to the loading of anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). However, there is a paucity of data regarding the neck loads generated during non-injurious situations for children. Six males and six females aged 8-11 years old were equipped with a validated head sensor package and upper neck loads and moments were calculated from measured head kinematics while performing a series of playground-type activities. The maximum forces were 686 N in compression, 177 N in tension, and 471 N in shear, the maximum moments were 18.2 N-m in flexion, 6.0 N-m in extension, 6.4 N-m in lateral bending, and 12.1 N-m in axial twist. Female subjects exhibited similar loads and moments to their male counterparts, but larger Nij values. The peak loads measured in this study are larger than or comparable to those undertaken with adult subjects participating in similar activities. These data provide details of the non-injurious upper neck loads that occur in pediatric subjects.