Comparative study of impact of thermal aging on both surface morphology and catalyst performances was performed over fully formulated commercial lean NOx Trap using hydrothermal (oven) and engine aging for 5 hours at 750°C and 5 hr at 800°C. Investigations show that engine aging lead to more important degradation than hydrothermal aging because of the greater structural degradations that happened after engine aging: sintering of Pt particles, reaction of support (γAl₂O₃) with the storage material and a higher drop of surface area. It follows a decrease of oxidation and storage efficiency particularly after engine aging. During lean rich cycle environment, the rich step was not efficient to remove all the stored NOx due to storage on Ba-Bulk sites leading to accumulation of NOx after each cycle. The observed trend after engine aging was attributed to the presence of sulfur and mainly to soot as engine aging was performed with low concentration of sulfur in fuel. Presence of soot could have an inhibiting effect on NOx storage capacity leading to a decrease of NOx storage capacity due to adsorption over Ba sites of the CO₂ produced by soot oxidation with formation of BaCO₃. Additionally, outlet channels are not able to compensate the NOx storage loss due to the soot deposit in inlet channels.