Fuel Economy and CO
Emission - A Comparison between Test Procedures and Driving Cycles
The growing humanity concern about harmful effects of global
warming in consequence of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission has been
translated on CO₂ emission reduction targets for the next years in
many countries. These targets and regulations for exhaust gas
pollutants with local effects have led to the introduction of new
vehicular technologies as gasoline direct injection or hybrid
vehicles, for instance. New fuel developments, including
alternative ones, have already been an important contribution.
In the United States, up to 2016, all manufacturers shall
accomplish with the average production target of 34.1 mpg, becoming
49.6 mpg in 2025. In Europe, the 2015 target is 130 g/km of CO₂
average emission by each manufacturer production and reduced for 95
g/km in 2020. Japan, China, India and other countries have their
own limits defined for the next years too.
In Brazil, the national labeling program informs the energetic
efficiency level of each participant model and a classification of
them but do not establish targets for CO₂ emission mitigation.
Particularly, a very detailed discussion must take place regarding
ethanol participation on the fuel matrix.
However, a comparison between contributions of each country
target is not direct, since different measurement procedures and
driving cycles are adopted. The USA applies 5 cycles to obtain fuel
economy, in Europe is used the NEDC cycle and Japan has the JC08,
all of them looking for simulation of each local traffic condition.
In Brazil the FTP-75 for urban path and HWFET for highway path are
used, both coming from USA procedures.
This work presents an overview of main driving cycles in the
world assessing their characteristics, main available vehicular
technologies in each market and proposals of correlation between
the North American, also adopted in Brazil and the European
procedures, compared to test results performed in the Petrobras
Research Center (CENPES).