EGR systems are widely applied in modern turbocharged diesel engines to reduce engine-out emissions and will, or are being used to mitigate engine knock in SI engines for improved SI engine efficiency and power. In this paper, different EGR systems are detailed and evaluated theoretically based on the thermodynamics of a turbocharged system featuring an EGR sub-system. Turbine expansion ratio is utilized as a metric to estimate engine efficiency, i.e., pumping losses during the gas exchange process. Approaches such as compressor and turbine bypassing are evaluated as well. Based on above analysis, a new approach is put forward to expand the turbocharger work zone, particularly in the high efficiency regions by correctly utilizing EGR systems at all engine speed range: low-pressure loop EGR system at lower engine speed range and high-pressure loop EGR system at high engine speed range. Both numerical simulation and dynamometer data provide evidence that the proposed approach not only improves engine power output (more than 7% increment in this study) throughout the engine speed range, but also improves fuel economy by reducing pumping losses (PMEP is reduced more than 35kPa).