Effect of Equivalence Ratio on the Particulate Emissions from a Spark-Ignited, Direct-Injected Gasoline Engine 2013-01-1560
The effect of equivalence ratio on the particulate size distribution (PSD) in a spark-ignited, direct-injected (SIDI) engine was investigated. A single-cylinder, four-stroke, spark-ignited direct-injection engine fueled with certification gasoline was used for the measurements. The engine was operated with early injection during the intake stroke. Equivalence ratio was swept over the range where stable combustion was achieved. Throughout this range combustion phasing was held constant. Particle size distributions were measured as a function of equivalence ratio. The data show the sensitivity of both engine-out particle number and particle size to global equivalence ratio. As equivalence ratio was increased a larger fraction of particles were due to agglomerates with diameters ≻ 100 nm. For decreasing equivalence ratio smaller particles dominate the distribution. The total particle number and mass increased non-linearly with increasing equivalence ratio. High sensitivity of particulate number to even small equivalence ratio changes was seen. These changes may be attributed to changes in fuel and oxygen availability, as well as changes in the flame temperature and heat release. The results have implications for fuel/air ratio dithering, enrichment, and cold start in spark-ignition direct-injection engines.