Browse Publications Technical Papers 2013-01-2637

Flame Area Correlations with Heat Release at Early Flame Development of Combustion Process in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol and Butanol 2013-01-2637

As the vehicle emission regulations become stricter worldwide, one way to meet the emission requirements is to engage the use of alternative fuels in engine combustion. In this investigation, the early combustion processes of regular gasoline and alternative fuels, including ethanol and butanol, were studied by simultaneously recording both the in-cylinder pressure and the crank angle-resolved high-speed flame images in a single-cylinder spark-ignition direct-injection engine. The engine was equipped with a quartz insert in the piston which provided an optical access to its cylinder through the piston. The effects of engine coolant & oil temperatures and intake air swirl ratio on the early flame development were also studied. The heat release was derived from the in-cylinder pressure measurements and the corresponding flame area characteristics were extracted from the images. Experimental results show a reasonable correlation between the heat release and the area of the flame at the early combustion stage. The flame area correlations with heat release of gasoline, ethanol, and butanol can also be distinguished by the properties of each type of fuel. The correlations are also influenced by different operating coolant & oil temperatures and swirl ratios. In addition, a new link between CA05 (5% of total heat release) and CAarea5% (flame size reaching 5% of the piston area) has been established, thus providing a better understanding of the relationship between heat release process and flame area properties. Overall, this study has demonstrated that high-speed in-cylinder combustion imaging could be a viable diagnostic to reveal the combustion quality, especially at the early stage of the combustion process where the pressure transducer might not provide reliable results.


Subscribers can view annotate, and download all of SAE's content. Learn More »


Members save up to 16% off list price.
Login to see discount.
Special Offer: Download multiple Technical Papers each year? TechSelect is a cost-effective subscription option to select and download 12-100 full-text Technical Papers per year. Find more information here.
We also recommend:

Engine Technology for Alternative Fuels


View Details


A Conceptualised Design of a Two-Stage Combustion Engine System


View Details


A New Paraffinic Fuel Impact on Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine


View Details