This paper describes the conception, development, and analysis of a new engine type. The continuous flow rotary vane engine described in this work represents a new paradigm in heat engine technology in that positive displacement compression and expansion processes are incorporated in a steady flow, continuous pressure gain combustion design. This concept is explored through an ideal gas cycle analysis and a more realistic engineering analysis in which the gas losses are accounted for using a zero dimensional energy based analysis and the friction losses are accounted for using a one-dimensional analysis. Realistic performance estimates are included. An ongoing prototype development effort to test the performance predictions is included and as assessment of applicability for the engine concludes the paper.