An Examination of Crash and NASS Data to Evaluate the Field Relevance of IIHS Small Offset Tests 2014-01-1989
This paper presents the analysis of a series of frontal crash tests conducted by the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety that are commonly referred to as Small Overlap Impacts (SOI). The occurrence and severity of such frontal impacts in the real world were estimated using two different methods. Both methods used the National Automotive Sampling Scheme (NASS), which is a stratified sample of crashes in the US. The first method utilized an algorithm commonly known as Frontal Impact Taxonomy (FIT). The second method was based on comparison of deformation patterns of vehicles involved in frontal crashes in the NASS data files with those produced in tests conducted by the IIHS. FIT analysis of the data indicate that approximately 7.5% of all 11-1 o'clock frontal crashes in NASS are represented by the IIHS SOI test condition and they account for 6.1% of all serious-to-fatal injuries to front seat occupants restrained by seat belts and airbags. Based on the analysis of test and crash front end damage data, it is estimated that the IIHS SOI test mode represents 3% to 8% of all fatal crashes and 4.6 to 9% of all MAIS3+F injury producing frontal crashes.