Comparison of ATD to PMHS Response in the Under-Body Blast Environment 2015-22-0017
A blast buck (Accelerative Loading Fixture, or ALF) was developed for studying underbody blast events in a laboratory-like setting. It was designed to provide a high-magnitude, high-rate, vertical loading environment for cadaver and dummy testing. It consists of a platform with a reinforcing cage that supports adjustable-height rigid seats for two crew positions. The platform has a heavy frame with a deformable floor insert. Fourteen tests were conducted using fourteen PMHS (post mortem human surrogates) and the Hybrid III ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Device). Tests were conducted at two charge levels: enhanced and mild. The surrogates were tested with and without PPE (Personal Protective Equipment), and in two different postures: nominal (knee angle of 90°) and obtuse (knee angle of 120°). The ALF reproduces damage in the PMHS commensurate with injuries experienced in theater, with the most common damage being to the pelvis and ankle. Load is transmitted through the surrogates in a caudal-to-cranial sequential fashion. Damage to the PMHS lower extremities begins within 2 ms after the initiation of foot/floor motion. The Hybrid III cannot assume the posture of the PMHS in rigid seats and exhibits a stiffer overall response compared to the PMHS. The ATD does not mimic the kinematic response of the PMHS lower extremities. Further, the Hybrid III does not have the capability to predict the potential for injury in the high-rate, vertical loading environment. A new ATD dedicated to under-body blast is needed to assist in the effort to mitigate injuries sustained by the mounted soldier.
Kerry A. Danelson, Andrew R. Kemper, Matthew J. Mason, Michael Tegtmeyer, Sean A. Swiatkowski, John H. Bolte IV, Warren N. Hardy
Wake Forest School of Medicine, Virginia Tech, US Army Research Laboratory, Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, The Ohio State University