A new approach is presented to modelling wall heat transfer in the exhaust port and manifold within 1D gas exchange simulation to ensure a precise calculation of thermal exhaust enthalpy. One of the principal characteristics of this approach is the partition of the exhaust process in a blow-down and a push-out phase. In addition to the split in two phases, the exhaust system is divided into several sections to consider changes in heat transfer characteristics downstream the exhaust valves. Principally, the convective heat transfer is described by the characteristic numbers of Nusselt, Reynolds and Prandtl. However, the phase individual correlation coefficients are derived from 3D CFD investigations of the flow in the exhaust system combined with Low-Re turbulence modelling. Furthermore, heat losses on the valve and the seat ring surfaces are considered by an empirical model approach.
Since the comparison between measured and simulated exhaust temperature at turbine inlet serves as an evaluation criterion, a detailed 1D thermocouple model is implemented. Exothermic exhaust after-reactions are represented by a reduced reaction kinetics mechanism. The investigations were carried out for four TC-DI gasoline engines. The low scattering of the correlation coefficients as well as the high agreement between simulated and measured exhaust temperature verify the model quality. Overall, the new sectoral approach shows a significant improvement of wall heat flux calculation in comparison to conventional single-phase approaches from literature.