Biomechanical and Scaling Basis for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values 2016-22-0018
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, ES-2 and SID-IIs. The purpose of the original publication was to provide in a single document: 1) a listing of the IARVs for measurements made with the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies, and for the biofidelic side impact dummies, 2) the biomechanical and/or scaling bases for these IARVs, and 3) a comparison of IARVs and regulatory compliance limits and how they affect restraint design. The purpose for republication is to correct errors in the original publication and update the regulatory compliance limits.