Browse Publications Technical Papers 2018-01-0193
2018-04-03

Numerical Methodology for Optimization of Compression-Ignited Engines Considering Combustion Noise Control 2018-01-0193

It is challenging to develop highly efficient and clean engines while meeting user expectations in terms of performance, comfort and drivability. One of the critical aspects in this regard is combustion noise control. Combustion noise accounts for about 40 percent of the overall engine noise in typical turbocharged diesel engines. The experimental investigation of noise generation is difficult due to its inherent complexity and measurement limitations. Therefore, it is important to develop efficient numerical strategies in order to gain a better understanding of the combustion noise mechanisms. In this work, a novel methodology was developed, combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and genetic algorithm (GA) technique to optimize the combustion system hardware design of a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine, with respect to various emissions and performance targets including combustion noise. The CFD model was specifically set up to reproduce the unsteady pressure field inside the combustion chamber, thereby allowing an accurate prediction of the acoustic response of the combustion phenomena. The model was validated by simulating several steady operating conditions and comparing the numerical results against experimental data, in both temporal and frequency domains. Thereafter, a GA optimization was performed with the goal of minimizing indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC) and combustion noise, while restricting pollutant (soot and NOx) emissions to their respective baseline values. Eight design variables were selected pertaining to piston bowl geometry, nozzle inclusion angle, number of injector nozzle holes and in-cylinder swirl. An objective merit function based on the emissions, ISFC and combustion noise, was constructed to quantify the strength of the engine designs, and was determined using the CFD model as the function evaluator. The in-cylinder noise level was characterized by the total resonance energy of local pressure oscillations. The optimum engine configuration thus obtained, showed a significant improvement in terms of efficiency and combustion noise compared to the baseline system, along with both soot and NOx emissions within their respective constraints. This optimum configuration included a deeper and tighter bowl geometry with higher swirl and larger number of nozzle holes. Subsequently, a more detailed acoustics analysis based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique was carried out to further explore the combustion noise benefits achieved by the GA optimum. This computational study is a first of its kind (to the best of the authors’ knowledge), which demonstrates a comprehensive framework to incorporate combustion noise into a numerical optimization strategy for engine design.

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