Browse Publications Technical Papers 2018-01-0205
2018-04-03

Influence of Early and Late Fuel Injection on Air Flow Structure and Kinetic Energy in an Optical SIDI Engine 2018-01-0205

The turbulent in-cylinder air flow and the unsteady high-pressure fuel injection lead to a highly transient air fuel mixing process in spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines, which is the leading cause for combustion cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) and requires further investigation. In this study, crank-angle resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) was employed to simultaneously measure the air flow and fuel spray structure at 1300 rpm in an optically accessible single-cylinder SIDI engine. The measurement was conducted at the center tumble plane of the four-valve pent-roof engine, bisecting the spark plug and fuel injector. 84 consecutive cycles were recorded for three engine conditions, i.e. (1) none-fueled motored condition, (2) homogeneous-charge mode with start of injection (SOI) during intake (50 crank-angle degree (CAD) after top dead center exhaust, aTDCexh), and (3) stratified-charge mode with SOI during mid compression (270 aTDCexh). The air flow structure (quantified by the objective metric - relevance index) and kinetic energy were examined to study the effect of the fuel spray on the air flow. The air flow was nearly identical for three conditions before the fuel injection. During fuel injection, the entrainment of air into the spray was observed near the spray but the flow structure further away from the spray was not significantly affected for both homogeneous and stratified charge modes. Right after the fuel was atomized, the spray increased the kinetic energy of air flow by 48 ± 25% and 45 ± 40% (average ± standard variation, with CCV included in standard deviation) for spray at intake and compression stroke, respectively. Spray changed the flow structure and kinetic energy immediately after injection for both conditions. The changes caused by injection during intake did not affect the flow and CCV at spark timing. For injection during mid compression, both the flow-structure and kinetic-energy CCV were apparently affected at spark timing.

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