Comparison of Transient Diesel Spray Break-Up between Two Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes 2018-01-0307
Accurate modeling of the initial transient period of spray development is critical within diesel engines, as it impacts on the amount of vapor penetration and hence the combustion characteristics of the spray. In addition, in multiple injection schemes shorter injections will be mostly, if not totally, within the initial transient period. This paper investigates how two different commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes (hereafter noted as Code 1 and Code 2) simulate transient diesel spray atomization, in a non-combusting environment. The case considered for comparison is a single-hole injection of n-dodecane representing the Engine Combustion Network’s ‘Spray A’ condition. It was identified that the different spray break-up models used by the codes (Reitz-Diwakar for Code 1, Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) for Code 2) had a significant impact on the transient liquid penetration. From differing initial base setups, Code 1’s case was then matched as closely as possible to Code 2’s case, applying the KH-RT break-up model in Code 1 with the same constants for the break-up and turbulence models as in Code 2. Despite the nominal equivalence between the two simulations, there existed a discrepancy in liquid length prediction throughout injection between codes. This was thought to be caused by differing implementations of the KH-RT model in both codes. Therefore, a new implementation of the KH-RT model was input into Code 1 in order to allow correct matching of the liquid length to experimental data throughout the injection period. This was achieved utilizing a numerical switch based on the Ohnesorge number. Results from the new model are shown and compared to the previous implementation, showing an improved ability to match to experimental data. Differences between the results from the modified KH-RT model in Code 1 and the standard implementation in Code 2 are also discussed.