Effects of Ethanol Evaporative Cooling on Particulate Number Emissions in GDI Engines 2018-01-0360
The spark ignition engine particulate number (PN) emissions have been correlated to a particulate matter index (PMI) in the literature. The PMI value addresses the fuel effect on PN emission through the individual fuel species reactivity and vapor pressure. The latter quantity is used to account for the propensity of the non-volatile fuel components to survive to the later part of the combustion event as wall liquid films, which serve as sources for particulate emission. The PMI, however, does not encompass the suppression of vaporization by the evaporative cooling of fuel components, such as ethanol, that have high latent heat of vaporization. This paper assesses this evaporative cooling effect on PN emissions by measurements in a GDI engine operating with a base gasoline which does not contain oxygenate, with a blend of the gasoline and ethanol, and with a blend of the gasoline, ethanol, and a hydrocarbon additive so that the blend has the same PMI as the original gasoline. As such, the dilution and the evaporative cooling effects of the ethanol could be separated. Measurements have also been done with methanol and MTBE. The results show that evaporative cooling effect can significantly change the PN emission. The extent of the change, however, depends on the details of the operating condition such as injection timing, engine coolant temperature, and load.